Cataracts are the leading cause of blindness worldwide, and 20% of cataracts may be the result of excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation. The macular degeneration that causes blurred vision is usually caused by too much ultraviolet radiation. Cancers around the eyes, including skin cancers such as melanoma and basal cell carcinoma, are also caused by ultraviolet light.
Before talking about the causes, symptoms, prevention and treatment of cataract, do you know what is cataract? There is a transparent tissue behind the pupils of the eyeballs called "Crystals". Under normal circumstances, transparent crystals can refract and focus the light, so that the image falls precisely on the retina. When the transparent crystal protein begins to coagulate, the eye color gradually changes from black to cloudy, it will start to block the passage of light and cause blurred imaging. At this time, you already have "cataract". In severe cases, it will cause reduced vision and reduced ability to distinguish between light and dark colors and shades, which will affect daily life.
- Causes of cataract
Cataracts can be divided into congenital and acquired types. Congenital types are mainly derived from inheritance. Acquired types are mainly due to aging, long-term UV damage, trauma, inflammation or drugs may cause cataracts. They are divided into the following five types:
- Senile cataract
The most common type of cataract, as the age increases, the crystal gradually harden and become cloudy due to degradation, and finally visual impairment occurs.
- Traumatic cataract
It may be caused by car accidents, impact of blunt objects, stab wounds of sharp objects, burns, high heat, etc., and the crystal may be damaged and lose their functions.
- Complicated cataract
It is caused by complications such as high myopia, Iridescence, glaucoma and retinopathy.
- Metabolic cataract
Caused by metabolic diseases such as diabetes, thyroid disease, hypocalcemia, galactosemia and atopic dermatitis.
- Drug-induced cataract
Caused by long-term use of drugs such as steroids.
- Symptoms of cataract
The most obvious symptom of cataract is the gradual loss of vision, but no pain or discomfort. For early symptoms, the original crystal will be reduced in transparency, which will lead to blurred vision, overlapping images, glare and halo, poor night vision or contrast vision. There is a problem of the color vision feels dark or yellow. If it has progressed to the later stage, vision will be impaired, and it is only possible to distinguish things that are closer or only feel the light.
- Treatment of cataract
In current medicine stage, there is no effective treatment for medicine or eye drops, which can only temporarily delay the deterioration. The most direct and effective way is surgery. When performing surgery, the left and right eyes will be performed separately, with an interval of several weeks in between. The surgical methods are divided into two types: "extracapsular lens removal" and "ultrasonic crystal emulsification". After removing the turbid crystal, artificial crystal can be placed. The artificial crystal need to remain in the eye for a long time, and they need to have good biocompatibility to minimize postoperative adverse reactions, and can be stable without deviation fixed in the eyes to maintain vision.
Postoperative maintenance is also very important. You must protect your eyes from ultraviolet rays. You must wear sunglasses under strong light, avoid eye collision, sleep in a lying position, decrease intraocular pressure, and not eat irritating or too hard food, driving and strenuous exercise, etc., let the eyes rest well. The recovery status and complications are still slightly different according to personal physical conditions.
- Cataract prevention
- Avoid strong light and ultraviolet rays
There is a considerable correlation between ultraviolet radiation and cataracts. You should wear a hat and sunglasses when engaging in outdoor activities to avoid direct sunlight from damaging your eyes.
- Avoid lack of water or high blood sugar
The human body is metabolizing all the time, and the same is true for the crystal. Water and sugar play an important role in the process of keeping crystal transparent through metabolism. Therefore, timely supplement of water and avoiding excessive sugar intake are very helpful for the metabolism of crystal. .
- Avoid excessive use of eyes
In the era when the mobile phone is always by everyone’s sides, it is easy to cause eye fatigue, absorb too much blue light, resulting in eye lesions or blurred vision, and rest at a proper time and maintain a certain distance to reduce the burden on the eyes.
- Good diet and nutritional supplements
Eat more green vegetables and fruits and consume foods rich in antioxidant vitamins A, C, E, and B, such as broccoli, cabbage, carrots, kale, vines, lettuce, etc .; vitamin C can be obtained by ingesting guava, kiwi, papaya , citrus to obtain; vitamin A such as eggs, beans, dairy products; vitamin B such as brown rice, germ, red beans and barley and other cereals.
In addition, supplementing foods containing lutein and zeaxanthin can help absorb blue light, anti-oxidation and reduce the damage of free radicals. Because lutein and zeaxanthin cannot be synthesized by the human body, they need to be ingested by food, such as spinach, sweet potato leaves, pumpkin , Eggs, oranges, tomatoes and cabbage. If it is supplemented by health food, it is recommended not to exceed 30 mg per day. It is better to take it during or after meals.
Faced with the declining age of this type of aging disease, only early prevention and maintenance, maintaining good eye habits and good sun protection, and wearing sunglasses to resist ultraviolet rays can continue to have clear eyes.